Research | Ratings


Chapman S, Farrelly MC. Four arguments against the adult-rating of movies with smoking scenes. PLOS Medicine. 2011;8(8):e1001078. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001078. 23 August 2011.
Millett C, Polansky JR, Glantz SA. Government inaction on ratings and government subsidies to the U.S. film industry help promote youth smoking. PLOS Medicine. 2011;8(8):e1001077. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001077. 23 August 2011.
Sargent JD. Conflicts of interest: When media conglomerates rate their productions. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2011;165(2):181-182. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.283. 1 February 2011.


de Leeuw RN, Sargent JD, Stoolmiller M, Scholte RHJ, Engels RCME, Tanski SEE. Association of smoking onset with R-rated movie restrictions and adolescent sensation seeking. Pediatrics. 2011;127;e96. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3443. 6 December 2010.
Anderson SJ, Millett C, Polansky JR, Glantz SA. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001-2006. Tobacco Control. 2010;19:197-200. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.034991. 1 June 2010.
Millett C, Glantz SA. Assigning an ‘18’ rating to movies with tobacco imagery is essential to reduce youth smoking. Thorax. 2010;65:377-378. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.133108. 1 May 2010.


Tickle JJ, Beach ML, Dalton MA. Tobacco, alcohol and other risk behaviors in film: How well do MPAA ratings distinguish content?. Journal of Health Communication. 2009;14(8):756-67. doi:10.1080/10810730903295567. 21 December 2009.
Longacre MR, Adachi-Mejia AM, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Beach ML, Dalton M. Parental attitudes about cigarette smoking and alcohol use in the Motion Picture Association of America rating system. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2009;163(3):218-224. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.550. 1 March 2009.



Laugesen M, Scragg R, Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. Preventive Medicine. 2007;45(6):454-459. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.07.025. 26 July 2007.